In depth Japanese cultural innovations :Japanese cartoons and animation

In the last 3-4 years, we have often heard the word "innovation", which usually has technological meaning. But from the author's own research “ Revisiting The Notion of Innovation and Its Impact on Thailand’s Economic Policy: A Case Study of Japanese Manga ” Innovation can only have a wider meaning than technological innovation. Because innovation refers to the invention of new things that create a business or economic value.

The following 5 articles will talk about "Japanese cultural innovation" has been selected for a total of 5 issues, which create both business value and has the social and cultural value which today will talk about "Creating cartoons and animation in Japan"

Japanese comics and animation

In the past, when we didn't have animation movies Japan has to draw cartoons. Also known as "Manga" for a long time, going back to the 12th century. Evidence of ancient paintings of animals such as frogs, rabbits to mimic the ancient aristocracy. At that time, there was still no word about "manga" until Japanese artist Katsushika Hokusai (葛 飾 北 斎) (lived from 1760-1849) developed the artist. The technique of knowledge and the production of printmaking printed with wood carving in Ukiyo-e (浮世 จน) until finally becoming a manga and was the first person to name this type of art "Manga" as well. The word Manga (漫画) has the literal meaning Unstoppable images Incredible pictures

In the year 1868, the Meiji Reformation (明治 維新) of Japan opened the first wave of Western civilization into Japan. Many Western concepts began to spread to the Japanese, but in this era, the manga still does not have the characteristics of the manga that we know today. Until after World War II calmed down in 1945, Japan was fully exposed to Western civilization as the second wave. Mainly through the United States, The acceptance of Western civilization in the second wave has affected the development of innovations in the form of cartoons, manga, and Japanese animation until it is the media that we know today.

Let’s say after the Second World War, a lot of American media have been distributed in Japan, such as Disney cartoon characters like Mickey Mouse, and many Hollywood movies. In addition, accepting civilization from America in other areas such as Christianity, individualism Economic and social development like capitalism, etc.

Japan can bring the terrible experience of war and poverty to struggle to restore the country after the war. Merged with the concept that Japan originally And combined with new concepts from the West To develop ideas for the production of the story of the manga Because after the war was a period of pain and pain Manga has become a cheap entertainment that heals the wounded Japanese. Anchorman in the development of Japanese manga innovation is Tezuka Ozamu (手塚治虫), who pioneered the manga's plot and movie plot. In the past, manga was often just a comic strip of political satire or satire. He is also the creator of drawing unnaturally big eyes in order to express the character's emotions more. And later he is also an anchorman in the development of Japanese animation.

Japanese manga and animation are developed in accordance with the following 4 innovative approaches:

1) The creation of new products is the development of manga and animation from the old, unreliable media. Then becoming a form of revenue-generating product for those involved in the industry both publishers, writers, and many staff. Japanese manga and animation are still new products for international markets and generate a lot of income back into Japan as well

2) Creating a new process in the industry is the development of plot and story including the drawing techniques which result in a manga and animation that addresses business needs Liking readers and viewers formerly just a caricature cartoons did not generate any significant revenue.

3) The discovery of new markets that generate revenue, such as manga and Japanese animation, can penetrate the international market almost all over the world. Then becoming an important export product of Japan at present

4) The development of new raw material sources is the introduction of new concepts from the West into the story. Then becoming a special medium that is Asian and Western mixed together in a strange way be attractive to readers or viewers.

So, the Manga style and Japanese animation are one of the important cultural innovations in Japan that are accepted worldwide and generate a lot of income for Japan.

Article by: Dr. Weerayuth Podsatiangool HROD Consultant in international business organizations, Lecturer of the Association of Japanese Alumni of the Royal Patronage, translators and lecturers of many institutions.